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Statistical Analysis in Medical Research

2023/09/19   الكاتب :د. يحيى سعد
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Statistical analysis in medical research

 

 

 

 

The aim of statistical analysis in medical research, or what is known as biostatistics, is to analyze all data and information related to the spread of a particular disease or virus and its impact on the human component and to identify the rates and ratios of infection, hospitalization, and death as they occurred during the coronavirus pandemic. This reflects the importance of statistical science in general and the statistical analysis process in particular in the medical field, which reflects the study of human health and the impact of diseases and viruses, and because of the difficulties faced by some students in perceiving statistical concepts, especially in the medical field, constituting for many students an academic risk whose study requires hardship and perseverance. This causes more stress and fear among medical college students.

Through the present article, we are keen to clarify statistical analysis and its role in medical research by presenting some important points:

1.    What is statistical analysis in medical research?

2.    What is biostatistics?

3.    What are the sources of statistical analysis data in medical research?

4.    How to apply statistical analysis in medical research?

5.    How to develop a researcher's potential in the field of biostatistics?

6.    What are the classifications of medical diagnostic tests.

7.    The most important metrics used in evaluating medical diagnostic tests.

8.    How to develop a researcher's potential in the field of biostatistics?

9.    Statistical analysis in medical research pdf.

 

What is statistical analysis in medical research?

 

 

 

1.    Statistical analysis in normal research is a branch of statistics that provides medical statistics on the study of human health and diseases.

2.    Statistical analysis is applied in medical research between biomedical laboratory research, to clinical trials to promote health and global national healthcare systems to medicine and health sciences.

3.    Medical statistics are the study of human health and diseases, and their uses vary to include both (biomedical laboratory research, clinical medicine, health promotion, national and global health care systems, medicine and health sciences, including public health, forensic medicine, epidemiology and clinical research)

What is biostatistics?

 

 

1.    Biostatistics is one of the branches of statistical science specializing in medical research and is concerned with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of all data related to medical science which has an essential role in medical reports and the advancement and development of modern medicine.

2.    A vital statistic is very simply a statistical science applied in medical and biological subjects that is concerned with the design of statistical studies, the compilation and analysis of data, the extraction and interpretation of results.

3.    Biostatistics contributes significantly to enabling medical researchers to absorb and understand all the information and data he collected in order to know the progress of patients' health and the impact of treatment on improving the condition of infected people and to identify the real causes of health problems.

What is biostatistics?

What are the sources of statistical analysis data in medical research?

 

 

The data sources for the statistical analysis process are vital statistics, which are intended as a set of incidents and events that affect human beings from birth to death.

Data relating to biostatistics are obtained in accordance with the State's special laws. Among the most important types of vital statistics are:

  1. Birth statistics:

 

Data on births are obtained from specialized bodies such as the Civil Registry, which requires citizens to register and report each new birth. There is a difference between live and dead births:

       Live birth: Every child shows any sign of life after separation from his mother, even if he dies immediately thereafter.

       Stillbirth: He is a stillborn child after the sixth month of pregnancy, whether the death occurred before or during the delivery process. After complete separation, the fetus has not shown any signs of life.

Second: Fertility:

 

Women's reproductive capacity is meant and fertility is measured by the number of children born by a female during the period of childbirth between the ages of 15 and 45 or depending on the circumstances of society. We note that the testometer is linked to the female because the female who carries the foetus and fertility is defined between puberty and despair and thus facilitates the measurement process. There are some factors influencing the specificity, including the following:

       The spread of wars, diseases and epidemics.

       The degree of cultural progress that is usually accompanied by a decrease in fertility rates due to the prevalence of entertainment.

       Economic and social factors negatively and positively affect fertility.

Third: Death statistics:

There are several factors affecting deaths, including:

War has caused an increase in death statistics due to murder and malnutrition.

Sex, where male death is higher than female, is due to biological factors because a male newborn is less tolerant of life conditions than a female.

Health and civilizational progress reduce death.

Fourth: Health statistics:

Death rates are considered a prime example of a country's level of civilization. The lower the mortality rates, the more advanced the country is considered to be. The most significant indicators of health levels are those related to child and maternal mortality rates, as well as mortality rates associated with specific causes such as epidemics or viruses.

Fifth: Disease statistics:

One of the statistics of interest to medical workers, especially medical research and analysis of the health situation in society, is the subject of disease statistics

How to apply statistical analysis in medical research?

 

 

Statistical analysis is applied in medical research or biostatistics through the following:

 

1. There are common elements among medical research, including three main disciplines: statistics, computer science, and medical or biological sciences.

2. Researchers should have a thorough understanding of statistics and the ability to use computer software to perform statistical analysis on their experimental data. Additionally, they should have knowledge of biological sciences and biochemistry to provide scientific interpretations for their results. This enables them to produce high-quality medical research with significant scientific value.

3. There are many statistical software programs available for researchers to perform advanced statistical analysis in medical research. However, most researchers rely on a single statistical method, a specific test, and a particular program, limiting their ability to utilize other programs. Such reliance on methodological uniformity and statistical tests can significantly reduce the value and credibility of the results.

4. The researcher's knowledge in the medical field should not be limited to a single statistical test and considering it suitable for any study.

5. One of the most important software programs used in medical statistical analysis or biostatistics is Graphpad Prism.

What is Graphpad Prism?

 

 

1. Graphpad Prism is a user-friendly statistical analysis software that includes a wide range of statistical tools and graphical features, similar to most statistical software programs.

2. What sets Graphpad Prism apart is its superior data visualization capabilities, specifically tailored for biological, medical, and chemical data. It offers a diverse range of high-quality graphical representations compared to other programs like SPSS.

3. This software is particularly useful for users who may not have extensive experience with multiple other statistical software programs. Graphpad Prism serves as an excellent starting point for researchers looking to enhance their capabilities in the field of biostatistics.

What is the classification of medical diagnostic tests?

 

 

Statistical tests are varied in the process of medical diagnosis. The most important of these are:

 

First: Classification of medical diagnostic tests:

Diagnostic medical tests are classified into four types:

1. Test Values: These refer to tests conducted to determine the values of a specific measurement in patients and healthy individuals, such as blood sugar concentration, cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, and others.

2. Replacement: This test is used when comparing two tests to determine which one is superior. A comparison is made to assess which of the two tests provides more accurate results for adoption.

3. Complementary: This refers to an additional test that complements the primary test for diagnosing a disease when there are similar symptoms among a group of diseases. The primary objective of the complementary test is to rule out the presence of a specific disease rather than confirming its presence.

4. Elimination: Some tests have low accuracy and, therefore, can be disregarded once their lack of precision is confirmed.

 

Second: Comparison between medical diagnostic tests:

Undoubtedly, the doctor always seeks to ensure the accuracy of his diagnosis by relying on test results. However, when multiple tests are available to detect the same disease, it is necessary to compare the tests to determine the best one. Then, either exclude the other test or consider using both if their accuracy is equal.

 

Third: Evaluation of medical diagnostic tests:

1. If there are multiple tests to diagnose a certain disease, evaluating them is important to determine the most accurate test and subsequently detect the disease early.

2. There are several methods to evaluate diagnostic tests, but the most common method is the operational characteristic approach. However, this method should only be used when expressing the disease with ordinal or continuous variables because these variables have multiple points. By using this method, the best category or the best value of the continuous variable can be determined.

3. In the case of binary tests, evaluation is based on estimating certain measures such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.

The most important standards used in evaluating medical diagnostic tests

 

 

If a researcher in the medical field conducts a test on a group of individuals, some of whom are infected and others are not, the test results will be either positive or negative. However, different tests do not all have the same accuracy in identifying the infected from the healthy. There is variation in their ability to determine the person's condition. This means that they have different levels of accuracy in diagnosis. In order to determine which of these tests is more accurate, it is necessary to use some important measures, which are as follows:

 

1.    Allergy: Sensitivity to a test represents the proportion of patients given a positive test from the total number of patients.

2.    Quality: The quality of a test represents the proportion of healthy individuals who have been given a negative test from the total number of healthy people. Both sensitivity and quality of the test cannot be calculated unless there is a test called gold test, which will compare the results of the new test from its results.

3.    The predictive value of the wave is a degree of probability that the positive test will be correct.

4.    Negative predictive value is a degree of probability that the negative test is correct.

5.    Accuracy means the probability that the new test will give a valid result whether positive or negative.

How to develop a researcher's potential in the field of biostatistics?

 

 

 

The researcher's capabilities in the field of biostatistics or statistical analysis in medical research are developed by following the following points:

  1. Having a good background in the research subject (medicine, pharmacy, etc.) enables the researcher to understand the nature of the phenomenon under study and how to measure it (this step is available to researchers with medical backgrounds).
  2. For a statistical analyst, if they have an academic scientific background (having studied some courses in biology, chemistry, physics, etc.), they can acquire the minimum required understanding of the phenomenon under study by reviewing some previous research. By reviewing relevant literature and research papers, the statistical analyst can gain insights into the subject matter and develop a foundational understanding of the phenomenon being studied. This allows them to effectively analyze and interpret the data in the context of the specific research field.
  3. The most important step in developing the capabilities of a researcher in the field of biostatistics is to acquire the necessary statistical skills to conduct proper statistical analysis of biological data. This can be divided into two parts: descriptive statistics, which is essential for any specialization and should be studied even at a basic level, and inferential statistics, which requires the researcher to be exposed to the most commonly used statistical methods in biostatistics. These methods are covered in any textbook on biostatistics. By gaining proficiency in both descriptive and inferential statistics, the researcher will be equipped to analyze and interpret biological data accurately.
  4.  It is important not to overlook the identification of different types of statistical studies, their nature, and how to design them. This is a part that is often neglected by researchers in the field of statistics in general, including its various branches.

 

  1. The knowledge acquired from the previous steps can easily be forgotten if not applied. Therefore, it is important to work on analyzing biological data. Researchers will find many available databases online and in some books that enable them to apply what they have learned.

 

  1. Finally, with practice and continued learning, researchers will find that they need to apply some advanced statistical methods. This requires familiarizing themselves with these methods, understanding them, knowing how to apply them, and interpreting their results.

 

Statistical analysis in medical research pdf

 

 

 

For more information on statistical analysis in medical research or biostatistics, pdf can be downloaded into the following link (click here).

Conclusion

 

 

By the end of this article, you will have become acquainted with statistical analysis in medical research, also known as biostatistics. Starting from its definition and role in medical research, you will also gain an understanding of the nature of statistical data sources in medical research, as well as diagnostic medical tests and the most important measures used in their evaluation. With best regards from Derasah Company for Scientific Research and Translation. If you are looking for statistical analysis services provided by Derasah Company for Scientific Research and Translation, you can contact us via the following email: [email protected], or reach out to us and request the service through
WhatsApp at the following number: 00966560972772.

 

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